302 Echo Chainsaw Specifications

The CS-302 is a professional-grade chainsaw that has been fabricated Echo between 1977 and 1983. Even though it’s long been replaced by newer models in Echo’s product line, models of this nimble and hardy CS-302 are still to be used by chainsaw fans, and reconditioned units and parts are easily available on the secondary market.

Engine Specs

The CS-302 is powered by an air-cooled, two-cycle, one-cylinder engine fueled by a gas-and-oil mix. It features a 30.1-cubic-centimeter piston displacement, and it is equipped with a magneto-type flywheel, either a Walbro or Tillotson carburetor depending upon the model year and an automatic rewind starter. The saw’s power mind, minus the guide bar and chain, weighs in at 9.9 lbs.

String, Bar and Chain Brake

Standard equipment on the CS-302 was a 12-inch guide pub, but the saw could be outfitted with a bar around 16 inches . Its series has a quarter-inch pitch and 0.05-inch gauge. The CS-302 wasn’t equipped with a chain brake, a security mechanism that stops the spinning of the series when the saw goes back, as standard equipment, but an optional string brake was accessible as an extra-cost add-on.

Starting Sequence

The CS-302 is equipped with a conventional starter system that needs adjustment of the throttle and choke levers during the beginning sequence. The string involves locking the throttle open, closing the choke, yanking the rotor rope, opening the choke if the engine starts to fire and disengaging the throttle after the engine starts. Some newer Echo models, like the CS-355T, are outfitted with reduced-effort launching systems featuring digital ignition; the maker asserts that these systems require 30 percent less effort compared to those used on models like the CS-302.


The version closest in specifications to the CS-302 in the 2014 Echo lineup is the CS-303T. Like the CS-302, the CS-303T is equipped with 30.1-cubic-centimeter two-cycle engine, and it comes standard with either a 12- or 14-inch guide bar. The CS-303T has digital ignition, but it has a standard beginning system instead of the higher-end reduced-effort system. The CS-303T is also outfitted with an inertia-type series brake, and at 7.7 lbs, it is significantly lighter than the CS-302.

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Is Creeping Rosemary Edible?

“Prostratus” (Rosmarinus officinalis “Prostratus”), commonly referred to as creeping rosemary, is winter-hardy in United States Department of Agriculture zones 7 to 11. The fast-growing, edible herb adds pungent flavor to Mediterranean cuisine, and also the delicate flowers are as delicious as the leaves. It functions nicely as a ground cover, in container gardens, window boxes and can climb inside.

Creeping Rosemary Features

“Prostratus” is an evergreen perennial and also a versatile culinary herb. Maintaining a lower profile compared to erect rosemary, it grows 1 to 2 feet tall and 3 to 8 feet wide. It can track on planters, window boxes or above partitions, offering cascades of greenery and tiny flowers. This creeping rosemary displays dainty lavender-blue flowers and green leaves. Its leaves emit a mild pinelike fragrance. Use it fresh or dried to include meat, poultry and savory vegetable dishes. Only eat fresh rosemary you have that you know hasn’t been sprayed with chemicals.

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What Grade of Oil Is Used on a Chainsaw Oiler?

Bar Oil is designed to stick to the chain and bar of a chainsaw. It doesn’t include a Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) grade, also referred to as weight classification, similar to motor oil for your vehicle, but instead is rated for winter or summer use. Each manufacturer has its own recommendation for what petroleum type and grade ought to be utilized in its machine, so consult the operator’s manual when choosing bar oil for your chainsaw.

Summer Versus Winter

Heat from summer thins oil, and cold from winter makes it thick. Both conditions make you end up with a dry chain which means harm to your saw. To prevent this, chainsaw manufacturers make bar oils matched to the air temperature as well as the saw where it is harnessed. Even though they do not disclose the weight of their petroleum, the University of Missouri Extension advocates in lieu of utilizing a pub oil, select SAE 30 weight oil at summer and SAE 10 in winter.

Vegetable Oil

When a chainsaw is operating properly, it throws a flow of oil off the bar and onto whatever is in its own path. When that oil is petroleum-based, it leads to damage to wildlife and health issues for employees. Vegetable-based chain lubricants were developed to overcome these drawbacks. They’re weighted to function in warm and cold temperatures, consume about 50 percent less product compared to petroleum oils and do not pollute lakes and streams when utilized around them.

The normal

Petroleum-based pub oil has been the norm for chainsaws. Lightweight oil is employed in winter and heavier oil in summer. Manufacturers of chainsaws make bar and chain oils specially blended for their machinery to expand their lifespan, however, if they’re unavailable, the operator’s manual suggests options. One manufacturer recommends utilizing petroleum-based EP 90 transmission oil in case pub petroleum isn’t obtainable. Used motor oil isn’t advised because it lacks adequate viscosity to get lubing the chain.


The oil you put in your chainsaw oiler should have good adhesion to this chain all the way across the bar to reduce friction and prevent damage. Some bar oils also keep debris and sap from sticking to the pub and causing clogs. Check if you’ve got the right weight oil for the air temperature you’re working in by holding the saw about 8 inches from your tree stump or white rag, and rev the motor to about 75 percent throttle for a single minute. A line must form about the object you’ve got the saw pointed inoil and oil must flow freely in the oiler.

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How to Dye Cushions

If you want to replace aged pillows which are still in great shape, then consider dyeing them. An inexpensive package of dye in any colour of your choice, as well as a little investment of time, can transform your pillows and give them a new look. This small change can do wonders to refresh the decor of an entire seating room or area.

Take the fabric covers the pillows off. If your pillow covers don’t have zippers or a different sort of closure, unpick a small section of one of the seams with a seam ripper or embroidery scissors. Put aside the pillow kind or stuffing for today.

Pour 2 cups of water into a saucepan and bring it to a boil on your stove top. Move the boiling water into a plastic bucket, put on rubber gloves, and include dye from the package according to the manufacturer’s directions. Stir the solution with an aged wooden spoon until the dye is completely dissolved in the water.

Run the hot water until it is as hot as it can get, then add more warm water into the bucket to get the quantity of wax solution recommended by the manufacturer.

Plunge the pillow covers into the bucket and thrust them into the dye solution with the wooden spoon until they are fully submerged. Catch the covers to soak in the dye bath for about five minutes.

Stir in 1 cup of salt or 1 cup of white vinegar into the wax solution, based on the fabric content of your pillow covers. Use salt for cotton, cotton or rayon fabric, or white vinegar for wool, nylon or silk fabric. Adding the salt or vinegar helps the dye soak into the fabric more easily.

Return to the dye bath every five to ten minutes to stir and agitate the pillow covers a little with the wooden spoon. This helps the dye evenly penetrate the fabric. Keep this agitation for about half an hour.

Lift one of the pillow covers partially from the dye bath to check at the shade. If the shade isn’t as heavy as you desire, return it into the dye bath and keep soaking the covers, stirring and agitating every five to ten minutes until the shade is satisfactory. It shouldn’t take over an hour. Keep in mind that the last shade once the fabric is dry will be lighter than it appears when the fabric is wet.

Lift the pillow covers from the dye bath and squeeze the excess dye solution back into the bucket. Take the covers into the sink and rinse them under warm water, then cold water until you can’t see any more dye running from the fabric. Squeeze the covers to remove excess water, then put them in your clothes dryer or hang them up to dry.

Set the cushion types or stuffing back inside the pillow covers. In case you needed to unpick part of a seam to remove the pillows, then stitch the seam back with a needle and matching thread.

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Apple Trees That Grow in Hot Areas

Apples (Malus domestica cultivars) are somewhat temperate-climate harvest, suited to places with cold winters to ensure plant dormancy and following fruits. Over time, growers have developed varieties suited to milder winter climates. These low-chill varieties enable gardeners in warmer climes to enjoy home-grown apples. Home orchards at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 10 can produce tasty apples, occasionally in numerous crops during the year. The secret is pick of varieties that match with the winter-chill characteristics for your region.

Winter-Chill Requirements

Apple trees need a certain number of cold nights to offer dormancy for great flowering and fruiting. Winter-chill conditions are calculated from November through February, when temperatures drop between 32 and 45 degrees Fahrenheit. The low-temperature hours don’t have to be sequential. Most apples require 1,000 chill hours or more. But moderate chill apple types require 400 to 700 chill hours, and low-chill varieties can bear well with fewer than 400 winter-chill hours.

Low-Chill Varieties

Some apples require few to no winter-chill hours. These include “Anna,” “Dorsett Golden” and “Ein Shemer.” “Anna” requires 200 to 300 winter-chill hours. This green apple, frequently tinged with pink, was created in Israel especially for mild winter regions. Fruit ripens in June to July, and the taste is comparable to that of “Red Delicious” apples. “Dorsett Golden” apples are yellow-green flushed with red-orange, and the taste resembles “Golden Delicious.” “Ein Shemer” also originated in Israel, and bears ample small, sweet-tasting green apples. “Beverly Hills,” also a green fruit, produces well at 300 winter-chill hours. “Gordon” does well with 300 to 500 winter chill hours, and “Fuji” and “Granny Smith” both require 400 hours. “Anna,” “Dorsett Golden” and “Ein Shemer” all develop in USDA zones 5 through 9. “Fuji,” “Beverly Hills” and “Granny Smith” grow in USDA zones 6 through 9, with “Gordon” hardy in zones 5 through 10.

Medium-Chill Varieties

Even though they require more winter chill, medium-chill apples also grow well in USDA zones 8 through 11. Cultivars demanding 500 to 700 chill hours include “Gala” at 500 hours, “Golden Delicious” at 600 to 700 hours, and “Gravenstein,” “Newton” and “Rome Beauty” at 700 hours. All the low-chill varieties can also produce under these conditions. Red “Gala” apples have good taste and are great for cooking, eating, cooking, applesauce and apple butter. They are hardy in USDA zones 4 through 10. “Fuji” apples are yellow-green streaked and tinged with crimson. They originated in Japan from a cross between the cultivars “Ralls Janet” and “Red Delicious.” These large, sweet, crisp apples have a firm texture. “Gravenstein” and “Golden Delicious” are hardy in USDA zones 3 through 9, “Newton” at USDA zones 3 through 8 and “Rome Beauty” in zones 4 through 8.

Antique Varieties

Some antique cultivars suited to growing in mild winter climates of USDA zones 8 through 11 have been “Pettingill,” “Yellow Bellflower,” “Winter Banana” and “White Winter Pearmain.” The “Pettingill” apple was discovered in 1949 as a chance seedling at Long Beach, California. The green fruit is flushed crimson, and has sharp, sweet flesh. “Yellow Bellflower” is yellow flushed red-orange. It produces great cider, dessert and baking apples. “Winter Banana” has a unique aroma and taste, somewhat reminiscent of banana. “White Winter Pearmain” has yellow skin, flushed and dotted reddish-brown. Used mostly as an eating apple, it’s juicy, subacid and sharp. “Pettingill” and “Winter Banana” rise in USDA zones 3 through 9, “Yellow Bellflower” in zones 4 through 8 and “White Winter Pearmain” at USDA zones 5 through 8.

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The way to Compare Residential HVAC Systems

The heating and cooling of a home is a intricate task that needs the use of HVAC (heat, ventilation and air conditioning) equipment to moderate the temperature. When comparing systems for a residential HVAC system, understand that HVAC systems possess universal qualifications concerning the general heating and cooling of buildings. For the very best climate control in your home, look at the direct needs of the residential setting to ascertain the best outcomes.


Efficiency evaluations are universal and apply to all heating and cooling systems. The newer and more modern the model, the more likely it is to get a higher performance rating. This is the government standard for just how efficient a unit consumes energy. Always consider the efficiency of a unit prior to buying it.

Size of this HVAC Unit

The size of this residential HVAC unit is also important in saving energy and maintaining your bills in a minimum. A unit that is too small for the house will never be in a position to fully heat or cool a home. That means that the engine/motor/fuel/energy is always going without ever resting because the unit never fully controls the climate. If the unit is too large, there will be an excessive, or overkill, of energy output. Always purchase a unit that has a number that matches as closely as possible together with all the square footage of your home.

Air Conditioner Types

Even though air-conditioner units can come as part of a switch-unit that also shares the ventilation with the heater, they also arrive as standalone units. These may be outside of the home or in a basement or furnace room. Window-mounted units are also available, which can be more useful for smaller rooms; wall-mounted units are also available for smaller settings. Air conditioners do not need gasoline to function as they run off electricity.

Furnace Types

Furnaces can be stand alone or part of an overall HVAC unit. They rely on either electricity, wood or natural gas to function. Wood-burning furnaces are relatively old-fashioned, while natural gas and electrical are more common, modern counterparts. They heat air which is blown through vents or water that is forced through pipes. The type of energy intake is usually depending on what is most readily accessible to you, or what is the most economical in your area.


Consider geothermal if you’re building a new home and have additional cash in your budget. While a small HVAC system for a residential home might only cost between $5,000 and $10,000 on average due to 2012, a geothermal unit prices in the tens of thousands. On the other hand, the energy intake is drastically lower compared to traditional forms of heat as it uses the bottom temperature to maintain steady climate year-round. The EPA has proven that geothermal components can save as much as 40 percent annually on the expense of heating and cooling a home, but the very first setup costs are significantly more than traditional HVAC systems.

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Fast Growing Flowering Cherry Trees

Flowering cherry trees, also known as ornamental cherry trees, paint your yard with showy blooms. These cherry trees aren’t grown for edible fruit. Instead , they bear no fruit or small, bird-attracting drupe. Flowering cherry trees generally to grow 24 inches each year, but some are believed to develop 36 inches each year. They grow best in moist, well-drained, acidic soil in a website featuring full to partial sun.

The Fastest

The quickest growing flowering cherry trees grow 3 feet each year. Yoshino flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis), also known as Potomac cherry and Tokyo cherry, has a canopy in an oval, curved or umbrella shape which reaches 35 feet tall. Its fragrant pink blossoms blossom in winter or spring, along with its leaves turn bronze or gold in fall. Pink star flowering cherry (P. serrulata “Beni-Hoshi”) comes with an umbrella-shaped canopy which attains 25 feet tall. Its purple, purple blooms blossom in spring and its leaves turn red, orange, bronze or gold in fall. Both trees bear small, black drupe in summer or beginning of winter and develop in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8.

Graceful Weeping Branches

Akebono flowering cherry (P. yedoensis “Akebono”) and weeping Higan cherry (P. subhirtella “Pendula”) possess graceful, weeping branches and keep pink blossoms in winter or spring. The canopy of this Akebono flowering cherry grows into a rounded, umbrella or vase shape and gets 25 feet tall at a rate of 2 feet each year. It’s fragrant flowers. Pink higan cherry (Prunus × subhirtella “Rosea”) comes with an oval, curved or umbrella shaped canopy and gets 25 feet tall at a the slow rate of 2 feet each year. Both trees bear small, black drupe in summer or winter and have leaves that turn gold or bronze in fall.

Loamy to Sandy Soil

Mount Fuji Japanese flowering cherry, also known a Mount Fuji cherry (P. “Shirotae”) and Shirofugen flowering cherry, also known as Japanese flowering cherry, thrive in loamy to sandy dirt and have fragrant blooms. Both trees grow 24 inches per year to receive 25 feet tall and yield small, black drupe in winter, summer or fall. Mount Fuji provides purple, purple or white flowers bloom in spring or winter. Shirofugen bears aromatic white or pink blossoms in summer or spring.

USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 9

Slightly warmer climates of USDA hardiness zone 9 can nevertheless relish flowering cherry trees, including, the Kwansan Japanese flowering cherry (P. serrulata “Kwanzan”). This tree typically grows 2 feet each year and gets 25 feet tall, but the height of a single in California is 43 feet. It’s an oval, curved or umbrella-shaped canopy, and has fragrant, pink or rose flowers in spring which become small black drupe a season or two later.

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The way to Identify Shrews, Moles & Voles

Whether a modest mouse-like creature startled you from scurrying through your yard or you discovered evidence of tunneling, learning to identify moles, shrews and voles is actually the first step in addressing these troublesome critters. Of the seven North American species of moles — insectivores linked to bats and shrews — four are located west of the Rockies. Thirty species of shrews — surviving on insects such as butterflies, wasps and crickets — reside around the nation. The strictist of schizophrenia, voles are found in just about any portion of the United States. With sleuthing and some careful observation, you can learn to inform these three apart.

Inspect your yard and garden for signs of infestation from the following three animals. Although you aren’t likely to see moles, they depart tell-tale volcano-shaped mounds 2 to 24 inches tall at the entrance to their burrows, and tunnel tracks under your yard and garden. Shrews typically reside in tunnels dug by moles as well as other mammals — you will need different methods to recognize them. Voles are best identified from the small trails they produce leading from 1 burrow entry to another.

Familiarize yourself with ordinary sizes. Moles are the biggest of the group, averaging 7 inches from tip to the end of a 1-inch hairless tail. Shrews are some of the smallest mammals in the world: mouse-sized and averaging just under 4 inches, excluding a 1-inch tail. Voles are usually over 4 inches long, with longer 1 1/2-inch, furry tails.

Look closely at fur coloring. Moles have thick, velvety fur ranging from gray to black. Shrew coat is short, soft and grayish. Voles are covered with coarse, short fur that is black-brown into gray-brown.

Study the general appearance of moles, shrews and voles when you visit them. Known for prominent front feet used for biting, moles have also elongated, hairless snouts. Their eyes and ears are both hidden by attractiveness. Shrews have also long, pointed snouts, but their eyes and ears are both visible. Voles’ rounded snouts are almost dull, and their bodies are chunky. Their eyes and ears are both exposed.

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Landscaping With Camelias

Landscaping with camellias (Camellia spp.) Adds year-round color to your outside space. All these broadleaf evergreen shrubs develop an average of 6 to 12 feet tall and are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 through 9. According to the United States National Arboretum, the most common species of camellia include Japanese or common camellia (Camellia japonica), which flowers in late winter and early spring along with sasanqua camellia (Camellia sasanqua), that blooms in fall. Camellias can be used as a landscape specimen, shrub border or privacy screen. Picking the proper planting spot is the key to successfully applying these low-maintenance shrubs in your landscape design.

Match With Other Sensors

Camellias grow best in well-drained soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5. Plant camellias close other acid-loving plants, such as “Jean Marie De Montague” rhododendron (Rhododendron x “Jean Marie de Montague” (H-3)), that will be hardy in USDA zones 6 through 9. Another option is “Happy Days” azalea (Azalea indica “Happy Days”), hardy in USDA zones 9 to 11. Space other plants at least five feet away from other plants to allow enough space for plants that are older to have great air circulation while also preventing the plant from needing to compete too far for water while getting established.

A Organic Privacy Screen

Plant rows of camellias as a hedge or to form a natural, colorful privacy display. Tall camellia cultivars that function like a hedge include “Yuletide” or “Spring’s Promise” Ice Angels camellia. “Yuletide” is hardy in USDA zones 7 through 10 and grows 8 to 10 feet tall, with a similar spread. “Spring’s Promise” rises in USDA zones 6 through 10, reaching heights and widths of 6 to 8 feet. American Camellia Society recommends planting camellias three feet apart when using them as hedges.

Produce Profuse, Multiseason Color

Produce a profusion of colour on your outside space. Camellias can be applied as a backdrop for shorter shrubs and perennials that bloom after camellias have finished thriving because the plants’ glossy, green foliage provides an appealing backdrop to the planting bed. Alternatives include putting other vibrant perennials in a similar shade and using a similar blossom time since the camellia to make a mass of color in the backyard. You could also plant camellias in planting beds, along with other shrubs and perennials with varying bloom times, to make a multiseason display.

Container Gardening

Grow camellias in containers to fill empty corners, then add attention to small outdoor spaces or to put on either side of an entryway. Smaller cultivars include “Fairy Blush,” which grows 4 to 5 feet tall and features dark pink flower buds that unfurl to reveal delicate pink flowers. “Marge Miler” is smaller, growing only 1 foot tall. It flowers in fall with delicate pink flowers. Repot container-grown plants every two or three years. Avoid having garden soil in containers since it can be too heavy. American Camellia Society recommends a potting mix for camellias and fertilizing the plants during the growing season using a camellia-specific fluid or using a mixture of 1 part iron and 4 components cottonseed meal.

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The Best Pest-Resistant Fruit Trees

Fruit trees provide delicious produce and attractive leaves, but if they endure from assaulting insects, it can be a lot of work for home gardeners to control the infestation. To decrease the chances of pest invasions, it is possible to purchase and develop pest-resistant trees. Some of the best fruit trees that could withstand pests in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 10 include well-known varieties.

Sour Cherries

Gardeners prize cherry trees because of their beautiful flowers, pretty leaves and bark which turn colors in the autumn. Sour cherries are best to use for baked goods and preserves. Common insects of cherry trees include aphids, scale, borers, caterpillars and several types of worms. Sour cherry trees are more resistant to infection than sweet cherries. Montmorency cherries would be the most popular sour cherries grown in the country, according to the Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. These reliable fruit producers have also a high resistance to infection. The “Northstar Dwarf” sour cherry also resists common cherry ailments.


Gardeners have an abundances of apple tree types to choose from. Apple tree enemies incorporate many insects, such as types of maggots and moths, scale and aphids. University scientists have developed apples, including the “Gold Rush” variety, that resist many common apple insects. Other vigorous, hardy and productive apple varieties, according to “The New Sunset Western Garden Book,” include “Haralson,” “Lodi,” “Mutsu,” “Newtown Pippin” and “Yellow Transparent.”


Persimmons are ideal fruit trees for home gardens. The East Asian natives resist most insects. The insects that do attack persimmons, such as mealybugs and scale, rarely cause serious issues. Persimmon trees are easy to take care of and tolerate less-than-ideal soil, drought-like conditions and wet feet during the winter, and do not require cross-pollination. They grow up to 30 feet tall and produce leaves which turn colors.

Quince and Che

Seedless che fruit resists pests and diseases well. Native to East Asia, the fruit tree needs little care, is drought tolerant and can endure poor soil conditions. It grows to about 25 feet tall and produces round clusters of red and dark red hot fruit which tastes like watermelon. Quince is a slow-growing deciduous pest-resistant fruit tree. It can grow over 20 feet tall. It has a shrubby look with twisted branches and distinctive leaves. They are dark green on top and whitish underneath and turn yellow throughout the autumn. Following the tree produces pink flowers, edible golden roundish aromatic fruit looks. Quince fruit is good for jams and baked goods when combined with other fruit.

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