Planting Poppy Seeds & Killing the Weeds

Poppies (Papaver spp.) , grown because of their vibrant, showy blooms and attractive seed pods, comprise both perennial and yearly varieties. You can develop them readily from seed sown directly in the garden. Removing weeds before planting and preventing the future increase will make growing your poppies easier and much more rewarding. Mechanical procedures for weed removal include hand drawing and tilling. Other procedures include herbicides and mulching. You will likely need to use a mixture of these methods to get rid of the weeds.

Mechanical Weed Removal

Prior to sowing poppy seeds, then you are going to need to eliminate weeds from the planting area. The reliable procedures of weed removal from hand-pulling and tilling need effort and time but are environmentally safer than chemical processes. Till or dig to a depth of 12 inches to guarantee elimination of deeper weed roots. Normally, when you have weeds in an area, the soil in that area also has weed seeds. You’ll probably have to take additional steps to prevent new weeds from invading before you sow your poppy seeds.

Growing Poppies

Plant poppy seeds in autumn for spring blossoms once you’ve pulled weeds from the bed. In regions with longer growing seasons, you can sow seeds in late winter or early spring for a fall crop of blossoms. Texas A&M; University recommends scratching the seeds in using a rake and keeping the planting bed moist. Many of the yearly poppy species will continue to self-sow in case you leave the pods on the plants. Poppies grow best in full sun and in rich soil that drains well.


The importance of mulch in weed prevention is hard to overstate. Mulch prevents weed germination by blocking sunlight to dormant weed seeds at the top layer of soil. Once poppies begin to demonstrate growth, apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to the planted area. Do this early spring and again in autumn. Preventing competition for resources from weeds will help the poppies thrive. Great muclh options include compost with or without aged manure, and ground bark or hardwood.


Preemergent herbicides work by blocking weed germination. Apply these in spring and again in early summer to stop cool- and warm-season weeds, respectively. Avoid using these too early in the growing season as young poppy plants may be injured, along with the weeds you are trying to avoid. Wait until poppies are 6 inches tall before having a preemergent herbicide. Short-acting post-emergent herbicides, like glyphosate, degrade quickly. You can use these safely as controlled spot treatments to kill individual weeds while poppies are actively growing or blooming, so long as you take care to avoid spraying the poppies.

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Celosia Types

Celosia comprises a group of plants, bearing vividly-colored blossom heads, and growing as annuals at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 through 9 and as perennials in zones 10 through 12. Celosia varieties are available in many sizes, from just a few inches up to about 5 feet high. Plants require little upkeep, thriving in drought and heat. Celosia plants are grouped into three classes: a crested type (Celosia cristata), a plume type (Celosia plumosa) and a spike or wheat type (Celosia spicata).

Crested Type

The flower heads of crested celosia (Celosia cristata), also called cockscomb celosia, resemble the structures of a mind, while some of the narrower flower heads seem like a rooster’s comb. An example of a crested celosia is “Toreador” (Celosia cristata “Toreador”), which rises 18 to 20 inches tall and has a bright red 12-inch blossom head. The “Chief Series” (Celosia cristata “Chief Series”) is a mixture of 40-inch tall plants with flower heads up to 7 inches across in brilliant colors of dark red, carmine, gold, rose or red and yellow bi-color.

Plume Type

The flower heads of plume type celosia (Celosia plumosa) are soft, velvety and feathery. Plants , when young, can also create side effects. The plumes come in cream, bright yellow, orange or red, depending on variety. “Sylphid” (Celosia plumosa “Sylphid”) is a 30- to 40-inch plant using green-yellow plumes, while “Apricot Brandy” (Celosia plumosa “Apricot Brandy”) is a 6- to 12-inch plant using reddish-purple leaves and apricot-orange plumes.

Spike Type

Spike celosia (Celosia spicata) can also be called wheat celosia, because its flower heads resemble heads of wheat. This type of celosia looks almost like a shrub, because each plant produces many flower stalks. Flower heads are smaller and blossom colors are muted in contrast to another celosia types. “Flamingo Feathers” (Celosia spicata “Flamingo Feathers”) is a well-branched plant using rose-pink flowers, growing to 4 or 3 feet tall. The “Bright Spears Mix” (Celosia spicata “Glowing Spears Mix”) consists of 24- to 30- inch plants with pink, white and dark red flower heads.

Growing Celosia

Grow celosia plants by placing seeds directly into the ground. However, in regions with long winters, start seeds indoors or buy nursery plants. Celosia wants a soil temperature of 60 degrees F to germinate and grow. Any sort of soil, such as clay or sandy loam, is suitable. All types of celosia prefer a sunny place, but mild shade is acceptable. All varieties of celosia boom in heat and bear drought, once established. Combined with other plants, the smaller celosia varieties also make attractive container plants. Celosia lasts for a very long time as a cut flower, and when dried, is a beautiful accent in a dry flower arrangement.

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Size of Chrysanthemums

Prized for blooms that appear when other blooms are fading, chrysanthemums, natives of Asia, are grown since at least 500 A.D.. Previously, 160 species existed, but a lot of them have been moved into Dendranthema or other genera. Only in the new millennium have breeders concentrated on enhancing mums for the home garden, rather than only for the floral industry. Recommended for U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 to 9, chrysanthemums may also be grown as annuals.

Types and Sizes of Flowers

Chrysanthemum flowers come in four main shapes, sizes that range from less than 1 inch in diameter to over 3 inches and every shade except blue. The biggest blossoms are usually spider types composed of many long, curled tendrils. Decorative or florists’ mums show a mass of overlapping little petals, often encircling a domed center. As their name implies, daisy types form a ring of sole petals around a prominent center. The smallest mums, called pompons or buttons, are balls of petals which might be no larger than a nickel. Purplish-pink “Sweet Peg” sports 3/4-inch semi-double blossoms in October, while “J.C. Weigelan” bursts from 3 1/2-inch magenta, single blooms the exact same month. The uncommon “Will’s Amazing” produces 1-inch, bi-color, daisy type flowers that start out mainly red with a bit of creamy yellow near the center but end as predominately yellow with reddish tips.

Low-Growing Mums

As chrysanthemum blossom types vary considerably, so does the height of garden mother plants. Reportedly, they can range from under a foot to 6 feet tall. Low-growing (up to 18 ins) hardy mother plants are less prevalent than taller varieties but have the advantage of not needing support. C. weyrichii “Pink Bomb,” a good rock garden plant, forms a mat 12 to 18 inches high. Perhaps the lowest of all the Pacific chrysanthemum (C. pacificum) remains at 4 to 6 inches tall and functions like a weed-repelling ground cover. Its golden-yellow blossoms, only 3/4-inch wide, come late, in November.

Tall Garden Mums

Cultivars that climb to over 3 feet offer variety in plantings of chrysanthemums and can be put in the back of beds. If they get lanky, you might need to link them to stakes for support. “Emperor of China,” will reach 4 feet and produces beautiful two-tone pink blossoms late in the autumn. “Mei-kyo,” a good companion for “Emperor of China,” is a 3-foot plant which resembles a little shrub if not pinched back. Big plants don’t always bear huge blossoms, though, as these two have 1 1/2-inch and 1-inch blooms, respectively. If you want larger blooms, remove all flower buds but one or two in every cluster.

Growing Tips

Perennial garden mums are photoperiodic, thriving in reaction to shortening days and longer nights. When nighttime approach 12 hours in length, buds begin to form. September and October are the peak months for chrysanthemum blooms in the backyard. Consistently plant mums at least 20 feet apart from streetlights or other lights which burn at night or the plants might be thrown off schedule and fail to blossom. Water deeply and regularly and mulch to maintain moisture. Evergreen boughs serve nicely as a mulch for chrysanthemums. Their ideal soil pH is slightly acidic, between 5.8 and 6.8. Dig in organic matter that’s on the acidic side, like peat moss, bark, leaves and sawdust. Begin pinching mums back in the spring when new shoots are 3 to 4 inches long. Grasp the growing tip and initial pair of leaves and nip them off with your thumb and forefinger. Repeat several times until early July to encourage denser foliage and more blooms.

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Very good Pollinators to Bing Cherry Trees

To get a sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium) to produce fruit, pollen must pass from the male portion of the blossom, the stamen, to the female portion of the flower, the pistil. Pollinating insects help by transferring the pollen from one blossom part to another. Sweet cherry trees, such as “Bing,” require pollen from a different cherry cultivar nearby to make fruit. These are known as pollinizers. Both insects and other cherry varieties are considered pollinators of “Bing” cherry.

“Bing” Cherry Trees

Named for the foreman, Ah “Bing,” in Seth Lewelling’s 19th century Oregon fruit tree nursery, the “Bing” cherry is the most common sweet cherry cultivar. The tree grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8 and reaches heights up to 20 feet. It produces small, white flower clusters and dark red, sweet, juicy fruit, suitable for fresh eating and cooking. “Bing” cherry trees require well-drained soil and regular watering, as they are susceptible to root diseases.


Although “Bing” cherry blossoms have both male and female structures, they are unable to fertilize themselves. The tree requires other cultivars and insects to move the pollen to the “Bing” cherry tree. Conversely, sour cherry varieties are self-fruitful, meaning that they can produce fruit with pollen, transferred by insects, from flowers on precisely the exact same tree. Sour cherry varieties can offer pollen for “Bing” cherries if their bloom periods coincide.


For cherry pollinizers to pollinate “Bing” cherry trees, they must be in bloom at precisely the exact same moment. They have to also be planted close together to ensure that insects visit each tree. Several cultivars with overlapping bloom times are suitable for “Bing” pollinization such as “Lapins,” “Stella,” “Black Tartarian,” “Black Republican,” “Van,” “Sam” and “Windsor.”


Pollen goes from flower to blossom with the help of an agent such as water, insects, mammals and birds. The most frequent agents for pollination are insects, particularly mammals. The highly concentrated, sugary scent of sweet cherry blossoms attracts honeybees, as does the pollen. For each excursion a bee makes to a place with cherry trees, it can visit over 400 flowers. Once bees find a good food source, they will return repeatedly, making them a significant cherry pollinator.

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Soil Requirements for Fruit Trees

Before planning on a crop of peaches or apples in the fruit tree, assess whether you are providing the very best dirt for your own tree’s growth. If you’re planting a young fruit tree or even caring for an older one, maintaining optimal soil conditions will continue to keep your tree healthy and productive. Testing soil prior to planting, preparing the ground for healthy root development, and appropriate irrigation aid in supplying appropriate soil conditions for fruit trees.


Prepare the soil conditions for planting by adding compost to the planting site, tilling it, then planting the tree. Don’t add fertilizer to the hole prior to planting as it might damage the roots. If the soil at the planting site includes clay, then put grooves in the sides of the hole before planting to assist roots break through.

Fertilization and pH

Fruit trees grow best in soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5. Before planting the tree, take samples in the top 8 inches, in addition to from a thickness of 8 to 16 inches so you’ll have a whole analysis of pH. Test the dirt annually to re-evaluate fertilization requirements. Although person fruit trees’ needs may vary, an overall approach to fertilization entails a 10-6-4 fertilizer annually. Broadcast the fertilizer on the ground surface, then water it in.


Fruit trees do best planted in dirt approximately 3 feet deep. You may not have that thickness accessible, particularly where construction has eliminated topsoil and compacted dirt. It’s still possible for a healthy fruit tree to develop in as little as 1 foot of topsoil. Look out for a layer of tough soil or clay inside two feet of the surface, though — split through it to allow roots to grow and prevent them from becoming waterlogged.


Make certain dirt using a high concentration of loam or clay doesn’t stay wet for too long. Water compacts the air spaces in deep soil — that can kill trees. Soil around the roots of a fruit tree ought to be moist, however “. The soil surface may be dry to the touch, but if you dig down 4 inches to find moist soil, the roots are well-irrigated.

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The way to Protect Your Septic System and Plumbing

The condition of your septic system influences your house and its value, as well as neighboring properties. When it is not working properly, the system can contaminate the groundwater, and that contamination can spread for miles. A nonfunctioning septic system can even keep you from selling your property. Keep your system up and running by watching what you set in the pipes, conserving water and maintaining vegetation across the tank, pipes and leach field at bay.

Septic System Operation

A septic system has four parts: the plumbing waste pipes, the tank, the drainage pipes along with the dirt. When everything is functioning properly, solids settle out of effluents entering the tank and sink into the ground, while polluted water overflows into the leach area. As the water percolates through it, the dirt removes harmful organisms, and by the time the water merges with the groundwater, it has been purified. The system will not function if the pipes are blocked, the tank is full, and also the leach area is jammed or contains the wrong type of dirt.

Preserve the System Clean

Any solids you place into your waste pipes which don’t decompose wind up on the bottom of the tank, and also once the tank fills, the leach area can flooding and cause the system to stop functioning. Among things which you need to put in the trash instead of the waste pipes are coffee grounds, feminine hygiene products, dental hygiene and cat litter. Furthermore, many household substances — such as petrol, paint and paint thinner, pesticides and bleach — can kill the organisms in the tank that decompose waste matter. Refrain from flushing such substances or pouring them into the sink.

Conserve Water

Adequate drainage is essential for appropriate septic operation, and you can flood your leach area by pouring too much water during the system. Low-flush toilets, which have become a simple fact of life in most municipalities, are particularly significant when your home has a septic system. You must repair toilet leaks expeditiously — a typical leak sends hundreds of gallons per month through the computer system. Most homeowners with septic systems create gray- water watering systems for their gardens or lawns, so shower, sink and clothes washing water does not have to experience the septic tank.

Other Protective Measures

Your septic tank is full when the degree of solid matter is within 12 inches of the outlet tee, but you should pump the tank before it reaches that point. The Environmental Protection Agency recommends pumping the septic tank every three to five decades. It’s vital that you keep the leach area and also the area around the tank free of trees. Their roots can develop into the tanks and pipes and make blockages which are expensive to clean. Grow just grass in your groin field, and do not push it. That can compact the soil and affect drainage.

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Managing Koi Ponds

A koi pond shimmering surface adds a feeling of tranquility to your backyard, but what lies underneath is its true magic. Koi fish, that are brilliant carp that can achieve lengths of 4 feet or more, insert vibrant sparks of color and life to any garden. While koi pond management plans vary depending on factors like where you pond is and how large it is, many general upkeep tasks can help you keep your koi pond’s natural beauty and wellness for years to come.

Water Changes

Koi fish excrete a lot of waste material. Combine this with natural debris in aquatic vegetation, dirt runoff in the edge of the pond and natural matter falling into the pond, and the koi pond water can quickly become contaminated. Every four to six months, 10 to 15 percent of the koi pond water must get eliminated and replaced with new water. Simply topping off the pond with clean water since the existing water evaporates won’t work, as that does not remove actual water contaminants but only concentrates them.

Feeding Koi

Koi are voracious feeders with large appetites to sustain their rapid development. For the best results, use pond fish food tagged for koi and goldfish, since these foods contain pigments that enhance the fishes’ natural colors. In pond temperatures of 86 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, a koi fish will consume 2 percent of the body weight daily. This falls to 1 percent in temperatures ranging from 68 to 85 F, and 0.5 percent in waters ranging from 50 to 67 F. Unless you plan to weigh your koi fish, which isn’t practical, simple observations should be sufficient. The koi needs to have the ability to eat all of the food you put in the pond in 15 to 20 minutes. You’re feeding the fish too much in the event that you become aware of a lot of food floating around the pond, or if the fish take on a bloated, round appearance instead of their naturally slender look.

Test the pH

A koi pond may be alkaline or acidic. Koi grow best in water which measures anywhere from 6.5 to 9.0 on the pH scale, which you can measure having a pH test kit in a pond or garden store. Water having a low pH, called acidic water, may also be corrected. Add a tsp of baking soda for each 500 gallons of pond water, wait for 12 hours then retest the water. Repeat as necessary until the water pH is in the acceptable range for koi. Similarly, water having a high pH, called alkaline water, may also be corrected using white vinegar. Use 1/4 cup of vinegar for each 500 gallons of water, wait for 12 hours then retest the pond.

Monitor Hardness

Water hardness describes how much potassium and potassium is frozen in the water, and can be examined with a water hardness testing kit readily available in most pond stores. Koi thrive best in water which has a hardness score between 150 and 300 parts per thousand. Measurements out this range affect the way the fishes’ gills function. If a pond’s water evaluations outside this range, over-the-counter pond hardness kits made from lime powder can increase the pond’s hardness. Follow the kit’s tagged guidelines, as instructions vary depending on the sort of lime used as well as the size of this pond and its existing hardness score.

Maintain Shade

Color serves several purposes in a koi pond. It helps protect the fish in sunlight, moderates the water temperature and will help decrease ultraviolet penetration into the water, which in turn helps decrease the risk of algae blooms. For the best results, roughly 60 percent of the koi pond surface should be dealt with in floating pond plants, like waterlilies. Once a month, check the condition of your pond’s vegetation and remove or add river crops accordingly.

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The Effect of Frost on Fruit Tree Blossoms

Temperatures that drop below freezing can cause substantial damage to fruit blossoms. However, once the buds are in an early phase of growth they are more cold hardy than in later stages, and the air temperature must be far below freezing to induce harm. When the temperature falls low enough, the pistils of the flowers will die, and they will not produce fruit. If the temperature falls after petals fall, and the new fruit is already growing, frost can cause a band of limited growth close to the stem which deforms the fruit and remains until harvest.

Vital Temperatures

Early in development, once the buds are just turning green, then the temperature must drop to 20 degrees Fahrenheit before even 10 percent of their buds are damaged in many fruit trees. However, to destroy 90 percent of the ancient buds, the temperature should drop to under 10 degrees Fahrenheit. Cherries are the exception and are heavily damaged in 25 degrees Fahrenheit in the first stages. After the blooms have opened, all of fruit trees will drop 90 percent of the fruit in the event the temperature falls to 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Damage starts to occur to complete blooms at 28 degrees Fahrenheit.

Pre-Bloom Assessment

The pre-bloom buds can be assessed to determine if damage has occurred. Assemble enough scions to collect at least 100 buds from various heights from the tree for a representative sample of potential damage. Pull the scions inside and place them in water for four hours or more in 70 degrees Fahrenheit. This permits the buds to swell and for any dead tissue to turn brown. Discoloration increases with time, so examining the buds too early can hide the harm. Cut through the middle of each bud and examine the tissue indoors, particularly the middle, for example discoloration. This may require a magnifying glass to see, if the buds are modest. If the tree is too little to take a large sample, then wait until after the blooms have opened to check for damage.

Post-Bloom Assessment

A similar assessment can be done as the flower is just beginning to open. The pistil of a flower early in the blossom stage that’s damaged by frost will turn brown and wither. The petals of the open blossom which were damaged by frost will possess brownish discoloration and will be curled. If the bloom is completed along with little fruit is present, then cut through the fruit about 1/3 of its span away from the stem and analyze for dark tissue.

Frost Protection

Light damage to buds and fruit from frost will not ruin a crop. When only 10 percent of a crop is damaged, this can help thin the fruit so that what remains greater growth potential. If temperatures are expected to drop to the point where a larger percentage of those blooms could be lost, frost protection measures become essential. By sprinkling the tree with water so that ice is formed, the buds or young fruit can be sealed from the ice and remain near 32 degrees Fahrenheit while the air temperature dips much lower. To be effective, the irrigation or misting should start before the temperature falls below freezing so that the ice being formed in the surface of their flames or fruit is warmer than the harmful atmosphere temperature.

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Grass Clippings and Blueberries

Blueberry plants, prized for the fruit they produce, demand a suitable site and good cultural services to guarantee a trustworthy, high-quality berry crop. 1 potential facet of ethnic care entails spreading mulch over the ground across the blueberry bush. Grass clippings are among the possible organic substances suitable for mulching around blueberries.

Advantages of Utilizing Grass Clippings

Grass clippings are maybe most prized and utilized for their availability because many yards produce a steady source of lawn clippings. A mulch of grass clippings can suppress weeds, conserve soil moisture and regulate soil temperature. Grass clippings also break down rather rapidly, adding nutrients to the soil as they decompose. This fast decomposition also produces grass clippings excellent as a temporary mulch till you apply a more durable mulch like shredded bark or wood chips.

Grass Clippings to Avoid

Grass clippings from a yard that was recently treated with a herbicide can possibly injure a blueberry bush and some other desired vegetation they are spread about. Grass clippings taken from a yard with a great deal of weeds can contain seeds that will introduce unwanted weeds to the blueberry planting. Allow wet or moist clippings to dry before you put them around your own lemons. If the grass clippings were stored in piles for quite a while and smell foul or sour, don’t use them as mulch.

Applying Grass Cippings

Only disperse dry grass clippings out about a blueberry plant, as evenly implemented when wet can form a dense, water-repelling mat. Until the clippings are fully dry, apply them in very thin layers. The thickness of a grass clipping mulch about a blueberry bush shouldn’t exceed about 2 inches. Keeping up a mulch-free distance that extends six inches out from the stem is important, as clippings in contact with the plant’s base can trap moisture against the plant or haven gum rodents.

Grass Clippings Mulch Maintenance

Since grass clippings break down relatively fast, they need routine replenishing to maintain a uniform, loose layer 2 inches deep. Occasionally fluff or loosen the grass clippings mulch to avoid matting and blocked water and atmosphere. Where a blueberry plant is affected by certain diseases or insects, remove the grass clipping mulch and any debris, such as fallen leaves or twigs, regularly or at the end of the growing season and replace it with fresh clippings or a different substance.

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The way to Grow Orange Mini-Cymbidium Orchids

Orange mini-cymbidium orchids (Cymbidium spp.) Generally bloom during the winter months, producing a few flowers stalks, each containing around 20 blooms. Blooming miniature cymbidium orchids reach heights of 18 to 24 inches, much smaller than the 36-inch-tall height of regular cymbidiums. Hardy at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 to 12, these tropical blossoms need consistently high humidity levels that indoor, potted culture easily provides. With the right care, your mini-cymbidium will thrive and become the focal point of any space it is grown in.

Put the mini-cymbidium in a place that receives direct morning sunlight and indirect, but bright, afternoon sunlight. Select an area with a constant daytime temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit and a night temperature between 58 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Do not set the orchid close heat or cooling vents.

Water the orchid when the soil is nearly completely dry. Pour water from a watering can directly into the cover of the bud. Don’t dash the leaf with water. Fill the pot one or two times with water to moisten the press completely. Permit the excess water to drain from the bottom of the pot, discard any standing water in the plant’s drainage tray. Never let the pot’s bottom sit in standing water. Water the plant through the morning to allow any stray droplets on the leaves to dry before nightfall.

Fill a drainage tray with pebbles. Pour water gradually over the pebbles, stopping when the tray is one-quarter to one-half full. Put the tray under the pot. As the water evaporates from the tray, then it will rise up around the plant, raising the humidity levels. Examine the tray every four to five days, and add water when the tray becomes empty. Never allow the water level to attain the pot’s bottom.

Fertilize the plant with a 20-20-20 nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium water-soluble fertilizer. Administer the fertilizer every 10 to 14 days through the spring and summer season, while the orchid is actively growing. Mix 1/2 teaspoon fertilizer with 1 gallon of water. Apply the fertilizer in place of a watering, pouring it directly into the pot. Stop fertilizing the plant when its growth goes along with the plant enters dormancy during the autumn months.

Examine the plant’s leaves for harmful insects like aphids, scale or mealybugs each time you water. Wash small populations off with a steady stream of water. Spray horticultural oil onto heavily infested foliage to eradicate the insects.

Repot the orchid every two to three years or if it outgrows its pot to the stage that origins are sticking from the surface and growing from the bottom bearings. Select a brand new pot that is 2 inches larger than the current container. Insert a 1-inch layer of orchid potting media into the new container. Slide the orchid carefully from its pot. Brush off any media clinging to its origins. Cut back any dead, broken, mushy or circling roots with a set of pruning shears. Prune all staying roots back to a span of 3 to 4 inches. Place the orchid in the middle of this new pot. Insert new media into the pot. Tamp the pot back on a flat surface to settle on the press round the orchid’s origins. Insert extra media, if needed, until its degree is 1/2 to 1 inch below the pot’s top. Water the newest media thoroughly.

Stake emerging flower stalks to provide support and keep them from splitting. Push 1 end of a 1/4-inch dowel to the social media 1/2 inch away from the flower stalk. Pull the flower stalk gently from the dowel. Wrap a twist tie around the stalk and dowel or clip them with a mini chin hair clip.

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