How to Install a Chandelier Lamp Cord

Many chandeliers are intended to be hard-wired into a securely attached junction box in the ceiling that is connected to a wall switch. If you’re renting your house or apartment, however, and would like to install a chandelier, a less-permanent connection is desirable. In these scenarios, you can install a swag kit on your chandelier. This will allow you to plug the chandelier into a standard outlet. A swag kit could be installed on a chandelier in around one hour with a few basic hand tools. Remove the chandelier’s canopy before you begin.

Rank a stepladder directly beneath the area on the ceiling from which you would like to hang the chandelier. Find the nearest joist with a stud finder and mark a drill hole location on the drywall corresponding with the center of the joist using a pencil.

Insert a 1/8-inch drill bit into the chuck of a power drill, and drill a pilot hole through the drywall and into the ceiling joist. Then screw one of the decorative hooks in the swag kit into the pilot hole before the base of the hook is flush with the drywall.

Go the stepladder so that it’s positioned beside the socket to which you would like to connect the electrical cord for the chandelier. Drill a pilot hole into the ceiling to get a second swag hook above the socket. If there’s no ceiling joist in this location, tap a drywall anchor in the swag kit into the pilot hole with a hammer, then thread a swag hook into the anchor.

Feed the exposed-wire finish of the swag kit’s electrical wire through each other link of the swag kit’s string. Then separate the previous link of swag kit’s string with a pair of pliers and then slip the previous link of the chandelier’s string onto the broken link. Shut the link with the pliers to guarantee the swag kit string to the chandelier string.

Slide a piece of heat shrink tubing over the ends of the wires of the swag kit. Strip off 1/2-inch in the ends of the two insulated wires with a pair of wire strippers. Attach the exposed ends of the striped wire from the swag kit into the black wire from the chandelier, and wrap the connection with electrical tape. Then connect the two remaining wires in the exact same method.

Slide the heat shrink tubing over the links, and secure the tubing across the wires with a hair dryer to shrink the tubing.

Put the stepladder beneath the hook from which the chandelier will hang. Lift the chandelier and then carry it next to the hook. Raise or lower the chandelier till it’s in the desired height, then hook the nearest link into the ceiling hook. Move the ladder into the hook above the wall socket, and loop the string onto this hook, allowing the string to traverse the ceiling. Adjust the loop attached to the second hook so the traversed string looks most appealing to your eye.

Insert the swag kit’s electrical plug into the socket, and turn the rotary switch to check the lighting.

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Managing Koi Ponds

A koi pond shimmering surface adds a feeling of tranquility to your backyard, but what lies underneath is its true magic. Koi fish, that are brilliant carp that can achieve lengths of 4 feet or more, insert vibrant sparks of color and life to any garden. While koi pond management plans vary depending on factors like where you pond is and how large it is, many general upkeep tasks can help you keep your koi pond’s natural beauty and wellness for years to come.

Water Changes

Koi fish excrete a lot of waste material. Combine this with natural debris in aquatic vegetation, dirt runoff in the edge of the pond and natural matter falling into the pond, and the koi pond water can quickly become contaminated. Every four to six months, 10 to 15 percent of the koi pond water must get eliminated and replaced with new water. Simply topping off the pond with clean water since the existing water evaporates won’t work, as that does not remove actual water contaminants but only concentrates them.

Feeding Koi

Koi are voracious feeders with large appetites to sustain their rapid development. For the best results, use pond fish food tagged for koi and goldfish, since these foods contain pigments that enhance the fishes’ natural colors. In pond temperatures of 86 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, a koi fish will consume 2 percent of the body weight daily. This falls to 1 percent in temperatures ranging from 68 to 85 F, and 0.5 percent in waters ranging from 50 to 67 F. Unless you plan to weigh your koi fish, which isn’t practical, simple observations should be sufficient. The koi needs to have the ability to eat all of the food you put in the pond in 15 to 20 minutes. You’re feeding the fish too much in the event that you become aware of a lot of food floating around the pond, or if the fish take on a bloated, round appearance instead of their naturally slender look.

Test the pH

A koi pond may be alkaline or acidic. Koi grow best in water which measures anywhere from 6.5 to 9.0 on the pH scale, which you can measure having a pH test kit in a pond or garden store. Water having a low pH, called acidic water, may also be corrected. Add a tsp of baking soda for each 500 gallons of pond water, wait for 12 hours then retest the water. Repeat as necessary until the water pH is in the acceptable range for koi. Similarly, water having a high pH, called alkaline water, may also be corrected using white vinegar. Use 1/4 cup of vinegar for each 500 gallons of water, wait for 12 hours then retest the pond.

Monitor Hardness

Water hardness describes how much potassium and potassium is frozen in the water, and can be examined with a water hardness testing kit readily available in most pond stores. Koi thrive best in water which has a hardness score between 150 and 300 parts per thousand. Measurements out this range affect the way the fishes’ gills function. If a pond’s water evaluations outside this range, over-the-counter pond hardness kits made from lime powder can increase the pond’s hardness. Follow the kit’s tagged guidelines, as instructions vary depending on the sort of lime used as well as the size of this pond and its existing hardness score.

Maintain Shade

Color serves several purposes in a koi pond. It helps protect the fish in sunlight, moderates the water temperature and will help decrease ultraviolet penetration into the water, which in turn helps decrease the risk of algae blooms. For the best results, roughly 60 percent of the koi pond surface should be dealt with in floating pond plants, like waterlilies. Once a month, check the condition of your pond’s vegetation and remove or add river crops accordingly.

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The Effect of Frost on Fruit Tree Blossoms

Temperatures that drop below freezing can cause substantial damage to fruit blossoms. However, once the buds are in an early phase of growth they are more cold hardy than in later stages, and the air temperature must be far below freezing to induce harm. When the temperature falls low enough, the pistils of the flowers will die, and they will not produce fruit. If the temperature falls after petals fall, and the new fruit is already growing, frost can cause a band of limited growth close to the stem which deforms the fruit and remains until harvest.

Vital Temperatures

Early in development, once the buds are just turning green, then the temperature must drop to 20 degrees Fahrenheit before even 10 percent of their buds are damaged in many fruit trees. However, to destroy 90 percent of the ancient buds, the temperature should drop to under 10 degrees Fahrenheit. Cherries are the exception and are heavily damaged in 25 degrees Fahrenheit in the first stages. After the blooms have opened, all of fruit trees will drop 90 percent of the fruit in the event the temperature falls to 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Damage starts to occur to complete blooms at 28 degrees Fahrenheit.

Pre-Bloom Assessment

The pre-bloom buds can be assessed to determine if damage has occurred. Assemble enough scions to collect at least 100 buds from various heights from the tree for a representative sample of potential damage. Pull the scions inside and place them in water for four hours or more in 70 degrees Fahrenheit. This permits the buds to swell and for any dead tissue to turn brown. Discoloration increases with time, so examining the buds too early can hide the harm. Cut through the middle of each bud and examine the tissue indoors, particularly the middle, for example discoloration. This may require a magnifying glass to see, if the buds are modest. If the tree is too little to take a large sample, then wait until after the blooms have opened to check for damage.

Post-Bloom Assessment

A similar assessment can be done as the flower is just beginning to open. The pistil of a flower early in the blossom stage that’s damaged by frost will turn brown and wither. The petals of the open blossom which were damaged by frost will possess brownish discoloration and will be curled. If the bloom is completed along with little fruit is present, then cut through the fruit about 1/3 of its span away from the stem and analyze for dark tissue.

Frost Protection

Light damage to buds and fruit from frost will not ruin a crop. When only 10 percent of a crop is damaged, this can help thin the fruit so that what remains greater growth potential. If temperatures are expected to drop to the point where a larger percentage of those blooms could be lost, frost protection measures become essential. By sprinkling the tree with water so that ice is formed, the buds or young fruit can be sealed from the ice and remain near 32 degrees Fahrenheit while the air temperature dips much lower. To be effective, the irrigation or misting should start before the temperature falls below freezing so that the ice being formed in the surface of their flames or fruit is warmer than the harmful atmosphere temperature.

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Grass Clippings and Blueberries

Blueberry plants, prized for the fruit they produce, demand a suitable site and good cultural services to guarantee a trustworthy, high-quality berry crop. 1 potential facet of ethnic care entails spreading mulch over the ground across the blueberry bush. Grass clippings are among the possible organic substances suitable for mulching around blueberries.

Advantages of Utilizing Grass Clippings

Grass clippings are maybe most prized and utilized for their availability because many yards produce a steady source of lawn clippings. A mulch of grass clippings can suppress weeds, conserve soil moisture and regulate soil temperature. Grass clippings also break down rather rapidly, adding nutrients to the soil as they decompose. This fast decomposition also produces grass clippings excellent as a temporary mulch till you apply a more durable mulch like shredded bark or wood chips.

Grass Clippings to Avoid

Grass clippings from a yard that was recently treated with a herbicide can possibly injure a blueberry bush and some other desired vegetation they are spread about. Grass clippings taken from a yard with a great deal of weeds can contain seeds that will introduce unwanted weeds to the blueberry planting. Allow wet or moist clippings to dry before you put them around your own lemons. If the grass clippings were stored in piles for quite a while and smell foul or sour, don’t use them as mulch.

Applying Grass Cippings

Only disperse dry grass clippings out about a blueberry plant, as evenly implemented when wet can form a dense, water-repelling mat. Until the clippings are fully dry, apply them in very thin layers. The thickness of a grass clipping mulch about a blueberry bush shouldn’t exceed about 2 inches. Keeping up a mulch-free distance that extends six inches out from the stem is important, as clippings in contact with the plant’s base can trap moisture against the plant or haven gum rodents.

Grass Clippings Mulch Maintenance

Since grass clippings break down relatively fast, they need routine replenishing to maintain a uniform, loose layer 2 inches deep. Occasionally fluff or loosen the grass clippings mulch to avoid matting and blocked water and atmosphere. Where a blueberry plant is affected by certain diseases or insects, remove the grass clipping mulch and any debris, such as fallen leaves or twigs, regularly or at the end of the growing season and replace it with fresh clippings or a different substance.

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The way to Operate a Pool Pump & Filter

Constituents of a swimming pool are highly interdependent. Without proper operation of each element, water comfort and quality degrade and damage may occur to other parts. The fundamentals of pool design are consistent whether implemented to in-ground or scattered pools. The system is designed to maintain a large volume of water correctly filtered, circulated, heated and treated with disinfecting chemicals. The two main components in any pool program would be the pump and the filter.

Pool Circulation

A pool pump circulates water in the pool through the filter and back to the pool. The pool pump is generally located next to the filter at a concrete pit or recess under the water level of the pool so water flows by gravity into the inlet of the pump. Water entering the pump input first passes through a strainer basket at the pump casing to remove debris. Leaving the pump, the water circulates through the filter and the heater, even if one is installed. Water is reintroduced into the pool via return jets embedded in the walls of the pool. In a frequently utilized pool, the pump may run continuously to offer consistent filtration and circulation. To conserve power, many residential pool pumps have been connected to timers so the circulation is restricted simply to hours of this day when the pool is very likely to be utilized.

Priming The Pump And Filter

Sometimes a pool pump may discard its prime and air may enter the machine, interrupting circulation of water. The most common cause is evaporation, causing the pool water level to drop below the intakes in the skimmers. Priming a pool filter and pump is a standard process in pool systems. Adding water restores the pool’s proper water level. You may remove the cover of the pump casing to fill the pump chamber and intake line with water. When you replace the open and cover the air-bleed valve in addition to the pool filter. The intake and release valves should be available and you can turn on the pump. When water is found going through the obvious sight window at the top of the pump chamber, circulation is restored. Wait until water starts to spurt out of this air-bleed valve on the filter, then close the valve.

Kinds Of Pool Filters

Pool filters vary according to the media utilized to filter the water. The easiest variety is a typical replaceable filter cartridge at a canister installed at the discharge line following the pump. These are generally utilized in smaller volume, above-ground pools and need no maintenance apart from scheduled filter changes. Sand filters utilized in larger in-ground pools use a bed of industrial-grade silica to filter the water as it percolates under pump pressure during the sand. Another number utilizes diatomaceous earth as the filter media, a porous powder that provides very nice filtering properties. Both sand and DE filters need periodic backwashing to wash the filter.

Pool Filter Settings

Pool filter multiport valves have generic settings that are pertinent to all major brands of sand and DE filters. The “Filter” setting circulates water through the sand or DE media, then out the filter via the return port into the pool. The “Backwash” setting redirects the stream of water backwards through the filter media to flush contaminants out as part of scheduled maintenance or when the filter pressure indicates it is becoming obstructed. During backwash, dirty water exits the filter via the waste vent and is discharged into the sewer drain. The “Waste” valve place bypasses the filter. Water in the pump enters via the pump port and leaves straight through the waste vent into the sewer. This setting can be used to vacuum the pool or to decrease the water level. “Recirculate” also bypasses the filter however sends the circulating water back to the pool rather than down the drain, a helpful setting when performing certain chemical therapies that would soften the filter media. “Closed” shuts off all water entering the pool.

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The way to Grow Orange Mini-Cymbidium Orchids

Orange mini-cymbidium orchids (Cymbidium spp.) Generally bloom during the winter months, producing a few flowers stalks, each containing around 20 blooms. Blooming miniature cymbidium orchids reach heights of 18 to 24 inches, much smaller than the 36-inch-tall height of regular cymbidiums. Hardy at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 to 12, these tropical blossoms need consistently high humidity levels that indoor, potted culture easily provides. With the right care, your mini-cymbidium will thrive and become the focal point of any space it is grown in.

Put the mini-cymbidium in a place that receives direct morning sunlight and indirect, but bright, afternoon sunlight. Select an area with a constant daytime temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit and a night temperature between 58 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Do not set the orchid close heat or cooling vents.

Water the orchid when the soil is nearly completely dry. Pour water from a watering can directly into the cover of the bud. Don’t dash the leaf with water. Fill the pot one or two times with water to moisten the press completely. Permit the excess water to drain from the bottom of the pot, discard any standing water in the plant’s drainage tray. Never let the pot’s bottom sit in standing water. Water the plant through the morning to allow any stray droplets on the leaves to dry before nightfall.

Fill a drainage tray with pebbles. Pour water gradually over the pebbles, stopping when the tray is one-quarter to one-half full. Put the tray under the pot. As the water evaporates from the tray, then it will rise up around the plant, raising the humidity levels. Examine the tray every four to five days, and add water when the tray becomes empty. Never allow the water level to attain the pot’s bottom.

Fertilize the plant with a 20-20-20 nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium water-soluble fertilizer. Administer the fertilizer every 10 to 14 days through the spring and summer season, while the orchid is actively growing. Mix 1/2 teaspoon fertilizer with 1 gallon of water. Apply the fertilizer in place of a watering, pouring it directly into the pot. Stop fertilizing the plant when its growth goes along with the plant enters dormancy during the autumn months.

Examine the plant’s leaves for harmful insects like aphids, scale or mealybugs each time you water. Wash small populations off with a steady stream of water. Spray horticultural oil onto heavily infested foliage to eradicate the insects.

Repot the orchid every two to three years or if it outgrows its pot to the stage that origins are sticking from the surface and growing from the bottom bearings. Select a brand new pot that is 2 inches larger than the current container. Insert a 1-inch layer of orchid potting media into the new container. Slide the orchid carefully from its pot. Brush off any media clinging to its origins. Cut back any dead, broken, mushy or circling roots with a set of pruning shears. Prune all staying roots back to a span of 3 to 4 inches. Place the orchid in the middle of this new pot. Insert new media into the pot. Tamp the pot back on a flat surface to settle on the press round the orchid’s origins. Insert extra media, if needed, until its degree is 1/2 to 1 inch below the pot’s top. Water the newest media thoroughly.

Stake emerging flower stalks to provide support and keep them from splitting. Push 1 end of a 1/4-inch dowel to the social media 1/2 inch away from the flower stalk. Pull the flower stalk gently from the dowel. Wrap a twist tie around the stalk and dowel or clip them with a mini chin hair clip.

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The way to Tighten Hands on a Genre

Dangling hands on the surface of a clock do not do anyone any good. The clock may continue to operate, but it certainly doesn’t longer tell you the moment, and if you possess a clock that chimes on the hour and the half hour, then it may not let out one note. Several clock hands are held to the surface of a spreadsheet by friction and a little nut, and it takes just a very simple repair to tighten them. If the fingers on your clock refuse to stay tight, then you may have to replace the nut or the clock hands.

Catch the hand against the clock shaft. Friction holds the hand on the shaft, and pushing it back on the shaft will tighten it. Once you tighten the hour hand, rotate it too the suitable moment.

Tighten the nut on the end of the shaft holding the second hand. Employing needle-nose pliers can allow you to grasp this little nut. This nut holds the second hand in place. Rotate the second hand to the correct moment.

Push the stem on the rear of the second hand into the opening on the end of the shaft in case your clock has a second hand. Friction holds the second hand at the little opening at the end of the shaft.

Verify the hands when you tighten them. Make sure nothing obstructs the fingers or they catch on each other. Carefully bend the fingers to whip them if needed.

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Pear Disease Spray

The pear orchard demands constant vigilance against a number of pests and disease organisms. While ethnic practices go a long way in preventing some diseases, like fire blight, once a disease pathogen has taken hold, using bactericides, antibiotics and fungicides is in order.


The two diseases which cause the most important damage to pear trees are fire blight, a bacterial disease, and pear scab, caused by a fungus (Venturia pirina). While the two diseases are serious, fire blight is the more destructive of the two. The bacterium (Erwinia amylovora) spreads into your pear tree by pest activity and by polluted soil that is splashed onto the pear tree during irrigation or heavy rains. Pear scab, on the other hand, is identified by yellow spots on the tree’s foliage. If not prevented, the infection spreads to other areas of the tree, and whether or not it affects the blossom comes, the blossoms will drop.

Types of Spray Treatments

Fire blight typically strikes the pear tree’s blossoms first. Disease sprays applied in the proper time help stop or contain the illness. The University of California Integrated Pest Management Program recommends streptomycin spray since the best treatment for pear fire blight, though terramycin sprays in addition to copper sprays and Bordeaux mixture may be used instead. Preventing pear scab calls for a careful adherence to your spray schedule and includes the usage of Bordeaux mixtures, fixed copper spray, neem oil or copper soaps.

Disease Spray Timing

Wet, cloudy or foggy weather in the days leading up to blossom boost the development of the bacteria which causes fire blight. Streptomycin sprays to inhibit the development are therefore best applied during wet weather, when the flowers are in blossom and temperatures are between 60 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. You need to reapply the product for optimum safety, so comply with the schedule on the tag. When treating the pear tree for pear scab, use copper or Bordeaux sprays just between bud swell and blossom. Applying these products after this period may result in burning the pears’ skin. If rain is in the prediction, reapply the product when the leaves start to emerge. Again, the schedule listed on the item’s tag is the very best guide.


Pesticide sprays work in tandem with disease sprays to control fire blight on pear trees. Aphids and pear psylla, a tiny cicadalike insect, assist in the spread of the bacteria that causes the disease. Using a dormant oil spray in the fall is the best approach to see to the pear tree for insects, especially the pear psylla, which tends to overwinter on the tree. Whether spraying the pear tree for disease or pests, products must be applied heavily enough to ensure comprehensive coverage.

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The way to Set the Depth of a Rough-In for a Shower Drain Installation

Shower drains rely on gravity to function, so drain pipes must slope downward away from the shower drain and toward the waste line resulting in the septic tank or tank. At a rough-in, the drain line is laid out from the location of the shower enclosure to the waste line leading to the septic tank or tank.

No Set Method

There’s no specific method for setting the thickness of a shower drain rough-in, but pipes codes typically need that shower drains drop by at least a quarter-inch each foot of run to ensure adequate drainage. That would mean a 12-foot-long shower drain line must drop by at least 3 inches between the shower drain and also the point where it connects the main waste line. Plumbing codes also want a water-filled P-trap in the shower drain line to avoid backup of sewer or septic gasoline to the shower enclosure, so an installation must allow room for the snare.

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What Causes a Hot Tub Heater to Be Dry?

The electric water heater in your hot tub ensures your water will have a comfortable temperature whenever you want to use the tub. Most hot tubs pump their water through a heater tube that contains an electric heating element to heat the water as it recirculates. If there is little if any water in the heater tube, the heater is said to be dry. A dry hot tub heater may get dangerously hot and requires immediate investigation.

Water Level

Newer hot baths have an electronic screen for error codes that can assist with troubleshooting. A message like “dr” or “dry” or “heater dry” is just a warning that there is no water in the heater tube. Although safety sensors are supposed to detect a dry state and shut off the heater, make sure you manually disconnect power to the heater and pump before troubleshooting the unit. First, check on the water level in the tub. If the water is low, add water to the proper level and try restarting the heater and pump.

Other Issues

Check for other problems that can impair or block water flow through the heater. They include blockage of the intake fitting or consumption skimmer, a dirty water filter, air trapped in the heater tube or a serious plumbing leak. Also check for improperly sealed valves that obstruct water flow through the pump.

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