How to Install a Pendant Light Into an Existing Track Light Fixture

Lights add a track lighting system and beauty in addition to efficiency. The lights hang down from the track and throw more light onto places that are specific. Lights are useful in areas like the kitchen where you want to obtain more lighting in your top — rather than scattered throughout the area — and still maintain a classy look. Installing a pendant lighting will take to complete and is hassle free.

Test the power to the track system by turning on the light. Turn off the light. Turn off the power .

Confirm that the new pendant lighting won’t overload the wattage rating of this track light system. Eliminate at least one of the present lights to allow for the wattage of this lighting, if necessary.

Align the touch blades onto the stem of this lighting parallel to the track at the stage of installation. Turn the pendant lighting stem 90 degrees clockwise. The stem will lock into place.

Install the color on the stem. Depending on the model you’ve bought, the color will screw without hardware into place or tighten them to grip it and you will have to insert screws to the stem. Should you have to insert screws, then there’ll be precut holes onto the stem and they will be included in the hardware kit that came with the pendant lighting.

Insert a light bulb to the pendant lighting that fulfills the specifications to the lighting.

Turn on the power and examine to make sure all lights are working correctly.

Adjust the lighting. So that the light doesn’t move once you’ve got it set correctly, tighten the position adjustment screws. The burden of this light and vibrations can dislodge it in the position over time.

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How to Boost Yin Yang Beans

Yin yang beans get their title from their white and black coloring, which looks like the symbol for yang and yin. Also known as calypso or even orca beans, they are an backyard crop that can grow in almost any of the diverse microclimates of the Bay Area. For example, gardeners in warmer areas of San Francisco County can plant yin yang beans most of the year; at cooler Santa Clara County, planting season runs from April. These bush bean plants grow up to two feet high and prefer well-drained soil with complete sun exposure.

Until the soil in a sunny area and work a 2-inch layer of mulch to the soil to increase drainage and provide nutrients. Test the soil and, if needed, add sphagnum peat or ammonium sulfate to lower the pH level, or limestone to raise the pH level to 5.5 to 6.5. Add 1 cup of low-nitrogen fertilizer, such as 5-10-10, per 10 row feet. Keep away from high-nitrogen fertilizer, which results in heavy foliage with minimal or no bean production.

Plant yin beans in rows 2 feet apart when the soil temperature is between 60 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant 2 to 4 inches apart and the beans 1 inch deep. The bean plants should emerge in eight to 16 days and will grow within 75 days.

Water the yin yang beans lightly and keep the soil moist. To prevent fungus stains that are rust-colored, do not enable the leaves to become wet. You can supply around 1/4 inch of water a day to prevent the soil. Insert a layer of mulch to conserve moisture and protect the shallow root system of the plant.

Pull up weeds as they emerge round the bean plants. Be careful to not damage young bean plants.

Allow yin yang beans to dry on the plant, and harvest the beans when most of the leaves have turned yellow. Do not water the bean plants whereas the beans are still drying. Dig the plant up if the weather is moist and transfer it to a location that is sheltered. In dry, sunny weather, the beans should be dried within three to four weeks.

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The Way to Calculate the Floor Space Needed

You will need just basic math skills — and if your middle-schooler needs additional math practice, make him perform the calculations for you to figure the area for your stairs. California has strict building code regulations in connections to stairwells and stairs. This offers you a clear set of numbers to plug into a simple equation to determine distance needed to construct them and how many stairs you need.

Assess the distance from the ground at the bottom of the stair place to the ground near the peak of the stair place. This is the entire increase of the stairs. Don’t utilize this room’s elevation. There could be small variances in the elevation or adjustments for floor joists not contained in the measurement.

Divide the entire increase by the estimated unit increase height. The unit increase elevation is tall you want your stairs. It has to be between 4 to 7 inches tall, according to this 2012 California Building Code. If your equation equals a non-whole number, for example 12 1/2, then round up to the nearest whole number. In cases like this, that would be 13. This is the entire number of risers.

Divide the entire increase by the entire number of risers. This determines the riser height.

Multiply the number of risers from the width of your treads. At the State of California, treads may not be more narrow than 11 inches broad. The amount of your equation determines the entire run length of the stairs.

Assess the entire run length to find out whether any stairs will be found underneath the floor. The 2012 California Building Code requires 78 for spiral staircases, or a minimum of 80 inches headroom. Adjust the elevation of your risers and the width of your stair tread until you come up with a formula that supplies that clearance if 80 inches isn’t available. This modification will affect the angle, or steepness, of the stairs.

Assess the width of the handrail. The distance between the other end of the stair tread and the handrail has to be at least 36 inches and the handrail must not float the tread by more than 3 1/2 inches. Add this span to the treads to determine how broad the stair area has to be In case your handrail is broad. Add 1/2 inch to the entire area needed for stairs to accommodate this addition, if drywall hasn’t yet been placed on the wall at the stairs.

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To Open Double Hung Windows for Cleaning

Wrapped is a phrase used to refer to windows where the window’s top and bottom parts equally open. The two sashes slide up and down, providing options that are better for air flow in homes or homes with higher ceilings. Models of those windows have latches that, when published, allow you to clean each side of the window pane from inside of your house. This eliminates safety issues with using a ladder to clean windows on top floors of the house and the undesirable disadvantage of living with filthy window panes.

Decide on a chair underneath the window region with the back of the chair facing the window. The back of the chair will support the burden of both window panes whenever they are open and you are cleaning them. If you do not have a chair available or your chair is not tall enough, then support the windows along with your palms. Painted finish and the window may incur harm if you enable it to hang.

Turn the locking mechanism at the center of the two sashes counterclockwise to unlock the window. If the latch is secured tight and you have trouble turning it, press down on the lower sash with one hand and flip the latch with the other. This loosens the grip between the two latch pieces, which makes it slide easier.

Twist the sash a minimum of three inches toward the top of the window. Squeeze the two tilt hold and latches inward toward the window. This will disengage the latches. Pull on the window toward your top until it is in a flat position. Once the window sash is free from the frame place, launch the tilt latches. Releasing them until they are totally free of the framework can harm the painted finish on the window.

Twist the top sash down at least two inches. Squeeze the two tilt latches and gently pull the top of the sash towards you as you did with all the lower sash. Rest the top sash.

Clean the top sash first to avoid drips or overspray landing a freshly cleaned bottom sash, which will require that you clean it twice. Raise the top sash After clean and engage the tip latches. Twist the top sash up, then clean and close the back in precisely the exact same method.

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How Can I Remove Fire Smoke Smell From Apartment?

Smoke leaves a smell that’s challenging to remove, particularly when it includes the burning of plastic or synthetic stuff. However, there are a couple of practices which will greatly reduce the odor of the smoke. After some work and a few simple steps, most of the odor should dissipate so you no longer detect it. What you’re doing is decreasing the number of particles by eliminating them from the area in order for your olfactory nerves no more may detect the smoke.

Blow out the flat with favorable pressure. This is significantly more effective that using an exhaust fan or opening a window. Set up the largest fan you can get, outside the front of your apartment door facing inwards. Turn it on top and blow fresh air in the home. As the smoke increased, it full of all the spaces in your flat and you want to flush it out. Close all of the other windows and doors and open one window for your exhaust. This will force the new air into the space and push any lingering smoke. Be sure to remove the display for better airflow. Close the window and the door to the area and open the window in another room. Work through the house blowing out each area separately for at least 15 minutes. Secluded rooms may need a second fan pushing fresh air in from a different opening.

Eliminate all of the curtains and window treatments from the flat windows. They’ll have to be washed or dry cleaned. In the minimum, hang them out to air out from the fresh air to remove some of the smoke particles from the fibers. Wipe any mini blinds. Any cloth will have to be cleaned or aired out, including pillows, clothes, towels, and blankets, based on the severity of the smoke.

Wash down all the solid surfaces using a spray solution of one gallon of water, one teaspoon of dish soap or shampoo and a quarter cup of white vinegar. Use a rag and rinse it frequently in clean water. Wipe window sills, baseboards, tables, chairs, shelves, tile or wood flooring where the smoke particles may have settled. Very sooty smoke may have left a residue on walls and ceilings which will have to be cleaned.

Vacuum the carpets with a machine which includes a HEPA, or high-efficiency, filter to maintain the smoke particles from blowing off back in the area. Use an attachment to vacuum sofas and chairs and any exposed cushions. Go over the surfaces to remove as much soil as possible. If the smoke particles persist in the furniture, then you may purchase upholstery cleaner to loosen the soil and then vacuum again.

Wash all window displays where the smoke exited the apartment. Set them in a bathtub or shower and use dish soap or shampoo to wash the net then rinse with cool water. If you used an exhaust fan, wash the filter out in precisely the exact same manner. Change the air conditioner filter if it had been in use at the time of this flame.

Remove and wash all of the light fixtures. Smoke rose then settled which means there could be a group of particles around the top of the mild face plate or in the cups which home the bulbs.

Wash the front of your kitchen cabinets, particularly if it had been a kitchen fire that resulted in the smoke. Look for any flat surfaces where the particles may have settled and wash them down along with your cleaning solution.

Mop all of the floors which aren’t carpeted. As time passes and more particles drop out of the atmosphere and the contents of your flat, they will end up on the floor, so several cleanings will be necessary. Dip your mop from the soapy solution, wash the floor then rinse the mop from the sink under new running water. Otherwisethe smoke particles will float around in your mop bucket and end up back on the floor.

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Attic Insulating Tips

Insulating your attic retains conditioned air–that is, heated or chilled air–within the living spaces of your home, conserving energy and money. Additionally, it helps extend roof life in regions with cold winters, as an uninsulated attic will draw warmth from the home and get hot enough to melt snow on the roof. Since the water runs off the roof, it refreezes, creating an”ice dam” that allows water penetrate under the shingles.

Seal All Leaks

Insulation is made simply to prevent heat from moving through building materials, such as drywall, ductwork and ceiling joists. When air is leaking out of the conditioned areas of your home into the attic, insulation isn’t likely to prevent it. That is why it’s critical to seal all air escapes before placing in any insulating material. Use materials such as caulk, weatherstripping and expanding urethane foam to seal any leaks.

Get Enough R-Value

“R-value” is a measure of a material’s ability to insulate. The”R” stands for resistance, as in resistance to heat transport. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulation. The U.S. Department of Energy recommends that attic spaces be insulated to a minimum R-value ranging from R-30 in the southern United States to R-38 at the middle tier of their nation to R-49 in the cold climates of the upper Midwest and northern New England. Insulating products are tagged with an R-value per inch. Fiberglass batt insulation, as an instance, is about R-3.5 per inch, so to receive a worth of R-49, you would need a coating 14 inches thick.

Don’t Cover Vents

Most attics are vented so the temperature within the attic is roughly equivalent to the temperatures outside. Roofing life is prolonged by this. Air comes into the attic through vents at the soffits–the bottom of the eaves–and exits through other vents in the roof. When placing down insulation, be careful not to pay the soffit vents, or your attic will not be suitably ventilated.

Insulate the Hatch

The attic entrance, such as a hatch in the ceiling below, should be as well-insulated as the rest of the attic. When you’re working in the attic installing insulation, you’ll probably leave the hatch open, so it’s easy to overlook. But should you’ve got 14 inches of insulation on the floor of the attic, be certain to have 14 inches on top of the hatch.

Don’t Let It Get Wet

Check the attic ceiling–the bottom of the roof–for water marks and stains. It might be putting into the insulating material, if water is getting into the attic. Wet insulation is all but useless, as water conducts heat very effectively. Also make sure that any exhaust fans–especially toilet fans–port to the outside instead of into the attic. Moist air in the toilet can condense on the insulating material, destroying its ability to prevent heat transport.

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How Do I Estimate the Value of Mineral Rights?

Real estate land comprises over the property and any structures built there. Any property package also has the minerals that may be present beneath the property. Normally there’s little of value there down, but occasionally you may find that you own a wealth of minerals just waiting to be pulled and sold in the open marketplace. Prior to making any deals concerning the rights to these minerals, you need to gauge the value of these rights. Knowing what they’re worth can help you decide precisely how to go about optimizing your profit.

Order a nutrient source report. Geologists will conduct a complete exploration of the reasons before presenting a report of the decisions. The report should include an estimate of how big their mineral deposits, including type, area, thickness and concentration.

Estimate the dimensions of the mineral area available for extraction using the exploration results. Calculate the estimated dimensions by multiplying the area of the supposed mineral place by the supposed thickness of the minerals. For instance, a 100-acre seam of coal 6 feet thick would have a field size of 600 acre-feet.

Calculate the estimated quantity of mineral comprised within the area. The area size by the amount of tons of coal comprised per acre-foot. For instance, to learn the number of tons of coal are in a field, multiply the field’s 600 acre-feet from the estimated 1,800 tons of coal per acre-foot in a seam. The area would have about 1,080,000 tons of coal.

Compute the mineral’s amount. Coal has a recovery rate of 90 percent if mined in the surface, roughly 50 percent if mined underground. Choose a restoration type and multiply the recovery rate by the estimated total Quantity of coal to determine an estimate of how much coal is extractable

Ascertain the worth of the mineral rights by multiplying the quantity of extractable coal from the average royalty levels offered on the mineral. If exemptions paid coal are $4.30 per ton, then multiply that from the 540,000 tons of coal extractable using the underground system to reach a mineral rights worth of $2,322,000 for its 100-acre seam.

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FHA Income-to-Debt Ratios

The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). While neither bureau loans money, the FHA insures mortgages accepted by participating lenders. If a homeowner defaults in an FHA-backed loan, the federal government reimburses the lender. Due to this assurance, credit requirements, for example debt-to-income ratios, for FHA loans are generally less strict than for conventional mortgages, based on Tracey C. Velt of


Debt-to-income ratios are simple measures used to judge a customer’s ability to repay a mortgage loan or other debt. Since explains, lenders consider just two debt-to-income ratios. One considers mortgage debt relative to earnings. The other looks at how much overall debt–loan, credit card, auto and student loan debt–a customer has compared to his earnings. The greater a person’s debt-to-income score, the larger credit risk lenders consider them.


FHA debt-to-income ratios are somewhat more generous than the ones set by underwriters for conventional mortgage loans. Based on Velt’s report, FHA guidelines allow prospective homeowners to invest around 31 percent of their income on mortgage debt. Concerning overall debt, that amount sits at 43 percent, as of July 2010. When an applicant’s debt-to-income score are greater than 31 and 43 percent, respectively, they still might qualify for an FHA loan; it only gets tougher.


HUD advises lenders to include comments on software with high debt-to-income ratios explaining why they consider the applicant an”acceptable risk.” suggests that homeowners with high debt-to-income ratios request their lender to run them through HUD’s automated underwriting system. This procedure tends to permit greater debt-to-income ratios than manually-processed programs.


Homeowners whose debt-to-income ratios exceed HUD/FHA guidelines must prepare to support their case. suggests showing a record of on-time credit payments as well as the proven ability to fulfill a large mortgage payment. While FHA loans typically permit a down payment of as low as 3.5 percent, as of July 2010, Bankrate recommends increasing the ante to greater than 10 percent for a means to place lenders at ease.

Expert Insight

Velt’s report points out that debt-to-income ratio standards for loans other than FHA products must be somewhat low. For example, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac use 28 and 36 percent thresholds as opposed to FHA’s 31 and 43 percent figures. Homeowners with surplus debt are not guaranteed an FHA loan. Based on Velt’s investigation, applicants for FHA loans accepted between January 2008 and August 2009 had moderate fico scores between 621 and 692. Additionally, FHA needs a comparatively sound recent–the last two years or so–credit history and evidence of reliable income.

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Real Estate Auction Bid Strategy

Bidding in a real estate auction demands preparation and patience on the part of the possible buyer. Together with any lien are other numerous other bidders, eager to land a good deal and walk off with a new home, investment property, business or part of property. Every auction is exceptional, but some general principles and caveats apply to all.

Have Cash In Hand

Real estate auctions nearly always need potential bidders to register either in person or online. At the auction, the registered bidder must present a cashier’s check for a predetermined amount, usually between $5,000 and $10,000. The check is typically written to the bidder. The winning bidder must pay a 5 percent deposit on the final purchase price, as well as a 5 percent commission.

Do Your Homework

After you’ve decided you are going to have the cash or cashier’s check in hand and before you venture out to the auctions, do your research about the properties. Learn what’s owed on every and if any liens have been placed against them. Read thoroughly any materials or information supplied by the county or the auction business. You may have the ability to learn all of this via a listing service. After you’ve subtracted any liens or tax burdens from the fair market value of the house, decide how much you’re willing or able to bid. Find a letter of pre-qualification or pre-approval if you’re going to need financing.

Know that the Auction

If you will be attending an auction which has a reserve, remember that even as the highest bidder, you can still shed the auction. In a reserve scenario, the bid can be rejected by the seller. If you’re bidding in an absolute auction, the high bid wins and the property is instantly sold.

Bidder Beware

When searching stocks for properties you might choose to purchase, start looking for those that welcome attorneys and real estate agents to accompany or represent their own buyers. Additionally, attend absolute auctions when possible, in order to avoid the reserve procedure, which places the seller in control. While bidding, be aware of other bidders who might be”shills,” or crops, set by the auction business. Shills function to bump up the price, inducing the purchase price to escalate.

Bottom Line

The main point in exercising strong auction approaches is to recognize when you’re purchasing the ideal property for the correct price. Be prepared to let the property go should you feel the price is too large, the reserve is too large, or the property has excessive liens and carrying costs.

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